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VOA慢速英语《科学报道》第15课

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听力原文

英语翻议讲解:

1.moderate a. 适度的,稳健的,中等的,节制的

例句:There will be a moderate breeze tomorrow.
       明天有四级风。

2.affect v.影响,妨害,感动,感染,感动

例句:The threat of closure affected the workers' morale.
      工厂行将倒闭一事影响着工人的士气。

3.primate n. 大主教,首席监督,灵长类的动物

4.deficiency n. 缺乏,不足,缺陷

例句:It is diligence that makes up for deficiency.
      勤能补拙。

5.weaken v.削弱,减弱,使稀薄

例句:His illness had permanently weakened him.
      疾病使他再也无法恢复体力。

6.identical a. 同一的;完全相同的,相等的;有同一原因的,有同一来源的

例句:My opinion is identical with his.
      我的意见和他相同。

7.sharp a. 锋利的,锐利的;陡的,急转的;轮廓分明的;刺耳的;敏锐的,机警的

例句:He was struck dumb by her sharp question.
      他被她那尖锐的问题弄得哑口无言。

8.collapse n. 崩溃,倒塌,虚脱

例句:The man's collapse was caused by overwork.
       那人因工作过度而累倒了。

9.eliminate vt. 除去,排除,剔除,消除

例句:Our goal is to eliminate poverty.
      我们的目标是消灭贫困。

10.corrective a. 纠正的,改正的,矫正的

例句:You do not perform corrective action at this time.
      这一次不能执行校正操作。

11.threat n. 威胁,恐吓,造成威胁的事物

例句:The constant threat of danger kept us all on our toes.
      我们因随时都会发生危险而保持警觉。

12.restriction n. 限制,限定,约束,制止,禁止

例句:They exported commodities there without restriction.
      他们出口商品到那里没有限制。

 

1.A Canadian study says drinking alcohol is linked to one in every twenty-five deaths around the world.

is linked to与……相关

例句:Bonus payment is linked to productivity.
      奖金与生产率挂钩。

2.Mister Rehm suggested that countries where alcohol is a problem should take action.

take action采取行动,提出诉讼

例句:He forbear from take any further action.
      他克制自己不采取任何进一步的行动。

3. This would result in people drinking smaller amounts that are not as harmful.

result in导致,引起

例句:Failure of crops often results in famine.
      歉收常引起饥荒。

4.She suspects that chimps may be a step ahead of humans in how their bodies deal with the virus.

ahead of领先于…,在…之前,超过…,提前…

例句:Now he's half a lap ahead of the rest of the runners.
      现在他比其他赛跑运动员领先半圈。

 

1.Only two areas did not have an overfishing problem in either the new study or the earlier one.

either...or...意为"或者……或者……;不是……就是……"之意。表示两者之一,连接句子中两个并列的成分。例如:

  When the girl is happy, she either sings or dances. 那个女孩高兴时,不是唱就是跳。(此句中either...or...连接两个动词,因为主语是单数第三人称,谓语动词要用其相应的形式。)

  either...or...连接两个主语时,其谓语动词应与最近的一个主语在人称和数上保持一致,这就是我们通常说的"就近原则"。例如:

  Either you or I am going there tomorrow. 明天要么你去那里,要么我去那里。

  注意:如果把上句变成一般疑问句,助动词形式与主语you保持一致,所以要用are提问,而不是am。例如:

  Are either you or I going there tomorrow? 明天是你还是我去那里?

2.Using nets that let smaller fish escape and agreeing not to fish in certain areas can help reduce overfishing.

let的用法

1)当let后只有一个单音节动词,变被动语态时,可用不带to 的不定式。
   They let the strange go.---> The strange was let go.
 
 2) 若let 后宾补较长时,let 通常不用被动语态,而用allow或permit 代替。
  The nurse let me go to see my classmate in the hospital.
  ----> I was allowed / permitted to see my classmate in the hospital.

英语听力原文:
VOICE ONE:
This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English. I'm Bob Doughty.
VOICE TWO:
And I'm Barbara Klein. This week, we tell about deaths around the world linked to drinking alcohol. We tell about a new discovery that chimps get the disease AIDS. And we tell better news about overfishing around the world.
(MUSIC)
A study has found that almost 4 percent of all deaths are linked to alcohol
A Canadian study says drinking alcohol is linked to one in every twenty-five deaths around the world. Alcohol was linked to deaths caused by accidents, injuries and violence. It was also linked to medical conditions like heart disease, liver disease and cancer.
The study was released in a series of articles published in the Lancet. It found that almost four percent of deaths around the world in two thousand four were linked to drinking alcohol. The study also found that alcohol drinking disabled a large number of people around the world. It was responsible for more than four and one-half percent of all the years people lived with disability. The study concludes that the worldwide health effects from drinking are about the same as that of smoking nine years ago.
One of the researchers was Jurgen Rehm. He works at the Center for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto, Canada. Mister Rehm says the average person around the world has about twelve alcoholic drinks a week. One drink equals a bottle or can of beer, a medium glass of wine or a very small glass of liquor.
However, the amount of alcohol that people drink is different around the world. For example, people in Europe drink the most alcohol, about twenty-two drinks a week. People drink the lowest amount in eastern Mediterranean countries, about one drink a week.
And alcohol drinking is rare in many parts of the world, including Muslim countries and India. Mister Rehm said the high death rate is even more surprising because the large majority of adults around the world do not drink alcohol at all. This is often because of religious or cultural reasons.
The study found that alcohol-related deaths were highest in Europe -- one in ten. Within Europe, the former Soviet Union countries had the highest rate. In Russia, about one in seven deaths were linked to alcohol. The report said these risks are also increasing in developing countries, especially Asian countries like China and Thailand.
Earlier studies have shown a positive effect of moderate drinking, especially of wine, on heart health. But Mister Rehm said heavier drinking can lead to heart disease. Drinking large amounts of alcohol over long periods of time has also been linked to a number of cancers. These include cancers of the head and neck, esophagus, breast and colon.
The researchers say two kinds of alcohol drinking affect health. They are the amount a person drinks on average and heavy drinking at one time, called "binge drinking." Jurgen Rehm said having one or two drinks a day is not as harmful as having seven drinks at once. And he said it is better to drink alcohol with meals.
Mister Rehm suggested that countries where alcohol is a problem should take action. He says they should make alcohol more costly and harder to get. This would result in people drinking smaller amounts that are not as harmful.
Another recent study showed the effects of alcohol drinking on road deaths. Researchers studied one hundred seventy-eight countries. They found that between thirty and forty percent of road deaths are caused by drinking alcohol. Experts from the World Health Organization said drunk driving is more than a law enforcement issue. It is also a public health concern.
Many scientists have long believed that non-human primates were the source of the human immunodeficiency virus, H.I.V. They believe the simian immunodeficiency virus, S.I.V., probably crossed from chimpanzees to humans in the last one hundred years. H.I.V. in humans can cause AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It weakens the body's natural defense system against disease. Scientists have believed that S.I.V. did not cause a similar immune system problem for primates. Now, researchers say they have evidence that chimpanzees with S.I.V. suffer a condition like AIDS.
Chimpanzees
Beatrice Hahn is a professor of medicine and microbiology at the University of Alabama in Birmingham. She is an expert in the development and genetics of immune deficiency viruses in primates. Her team spent nine years studying ninety-four chimps in Gombe National Park in Tanzania. The chimps are among a group that Jane Goodall and her team have been studying since the nineteen sixties.
Doctor Hahn and her team gathered liquid and solid waste from chimpanzees in the park. They tested the material for genetic information to identify the virus in two chimp communities.
Seventeen chimps were found to be infected with S.I.V. Seven of them died of the disease or disappeared and were believed to have died.
Each day, a team of researchers followed one of the ninety-four chimps. Doctor Hahn says the scientists discovered that infected chimps were ten to sixteen times more likely to die in any given year than uninfected chimps. She says infected females were three times less likely to have babies. Four babies were born to infected mothers, but all of these babies died during their first year.
The scientists found the strongest evidence of AIDS in studies of tissue from the chimps that died. Animal doctor Karen Terio of the University of Illinois carried out some of those examinations. She says the chimpanzee tissue showed a severe loss of immune system cells. She said they looked similar to tissue from human patients who had died of AIDS.
Doctor Hahn notes that chimpanzees are ninety-eight percent genetically identical to humans. She says the discovery that chimps can develop AIDS may help researchers understand the disease in humans.
Doctor Hahn says she suspects chimps first got infected with S.I.V. much longer than one hundred years ago. She believes the chimp virus infection is not quite as damaging as H.I.V. is in humans. The difference is the way the virus damages tissue. She suspects that chimps may be a step ahead of humans in how their bodies deal with the virus. The research was published in the journal Nature.
A worker processes herring in Gloucester, Massachusetts
Three years ago, a study of overfishing led to sharp debate. It warned that the world's ocean fish could be almost gone by the middle of the century. Now, a new study offers more hope. It shows that the risk of fisheries collapse has recently decreased in some areas, but not all.
Boris Worm at Dalhousie University in Canada and Ray Hilborn at the University of Washington in Seattle were lead authors of the new study. They led a team that studied ten areas. In five of them, the rate at which fish are being taken out of the sea has dropped to a level that should let the populations recover. Three areas still had overfishing, but corrective measures have begun.
Yet, in all, almost two-thirds of fish populations studied worldwide still need rebuilding. Only two areas did not have an overfishing problem in either the new study or the earlier one. They are New Zealand and the American state of Alaska.
The new study found that overfishing has been reduced in Canada's Newfoundland-Labrador area and in Iceland and southern Australia. It also found improvements in the northeastern United States and the California Current that flows south along the West Coast. The study found that better controls are still needed in the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Bay of Biscay between France and Spain.
Several methods can help reduce overfishing. They include using nets that let smaller fish escape and agreeing not to fish in certain areas. The study showed that these measures helped fish populations grow in Kenya. The findings from two years of research appeared in the journal Science.
This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written by Marisel Salazar, Caty Weaver and Jeri Watson. Brianna Blake was the producer.  I'm Bob Doughty.
And I'm Barbara Klein. For transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our shows, go to our Web site, irrting.com. You can also post comments about our programs. Listen again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.
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