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[00:00.00]New Concept English(4)Lesson 1--Lesson 11
[00:08.01]Lesson 1  Finding fossil man
[00:16.87]First listen and thenanswer the followingquestion.
[00:21.37]Why are legends handeddown by storytellersuseful?
[00:27.61]We can read of thingsthat happened 5,000years ago in the NearEast,
[00:34.89]where people firstlearned to write.
[00:37.81]But there are someparts of the worldwhere even now peoplecannot write.
[00:43.47]The only way that theycan preserve theirhistory is to recountit as sagas
[00:50.93]--legends handed downfrom one generation ofstorytellers toanother.
[00:56.81]These legends areuseful
[01:00.01]because they can tellus something aboutmigrations of peoplewho lived long ago,
[01:06.20]but none could writedown what they did.
[01:10.34]Anthropologistswondered where theremote ancestors ofthe Polynesian peoples
[01:16.71]now living in thePacific Islands
[01:18.87]came from.
[01:20.25]The sagas of thesepeople explain
[01:23.43]that some of them camefrom Indonesia about2,000 years ago.
[01:28.90]But the first peoplewho were likeourselves livedso long ago
[01:34.53]that even their sagas,if they had any,areforgotten.
[01:38.95]So archaeologists haveneither history norlegends to help themto find out
[01:45.09]where the first'modern men' came from
[01:48.52]Fortunately,however,ancient men made toolsof stone,especiallyflint,
[01:55.70]because this is easierto shape than otherkinds.
[01:59.95]They may also haveused wood and skins,but these have rottedaway.
[02:06.34]Stone does not decay,and so the tools oflong ago have remained
[02:13.14]when even the bones ofthe men who made themhave disappearedwithout trace.
[02:23.18]Lesson 2 Spare that spider
[02:28.95]First listen and thenanswer the followingquestion.
[02:34.15]How much of each yeardo spiders spendkilling insects?
[02:41.74]Why,you may wonder,should spiders be ourfriends?
[02:46.67]Because they destroyso many insects,
[02:49.62]and insects includesome of the greatestenemies of the humanrace.
[02:54.50]Insects would make itimpossible for us tolive in the world;
[02:59.23]they would devour allour crops and kill ourflocks and herds,
[03:04.15]if it were not for theprotection we get frominsect eating animals
[03:09.67]We owe a lot to thebirds and beasts whoeat insects
[03:14.58]but all of them puttogether kill only afraction of the numberdestroyed by spiders.
[03:20.52]Moreover,unlike someof the other insecteaters,
[03:24.75]spiders never do theleast harm to us orour belongings.
[03:29.89]Spiders are notinsects,as many peoplethink,nor even nearlyrelated to them.
[03:37.49]One can tell thedifference almost at aglance,
[03:41.19]for a spider alwayshas eight legs and aninsect never more thansix.
[03:48.13]How many spiders areengaged in this workon our behalf?
[03:53.10]One authority onspiders
[03:55.29]made a census of thespiders in a grassfield in the south ofEngland,
[03:59.90]and he estimated thatthere were more than2,250,000 in one acre;
[04:07.26]that is something like6,000,000 spiders ofdifferent kinds on afootball pitch.
[04:13.82]Spiders are busy forat least half the yearin killing insects.
[04:19.45]It is impossible tomake more than thewildest guess at howmany they kill,
[04:25.12]but they are hungrycreatures,not contentwith only three mealsa day.
[04:30.61]It has been estimated
[04:32.50]that the weight of allthe insects destroyedby spiders in Britainin one year
[04:37.64]would be greater thanthe total weight ofall the human beingsin the country.
[04:46.36]Lesson 3  Matterhorn man
[04:49.03] 马特霍恩山区人
[04:51.71]First listen and thenanswer the followingquestion.
[04:56.21]What was the mainobjective of earlymountain climbers?
[05:02.25]Modern alpinists tryto climb mountains bya route which willgive them good sport,
[05:10.88]and the more difficultit is,the more highlyit is regarded.
[05:15.34]In the pioneering dayshowever,this was notthe case at all.
[05:19.84]The early climberswere looking for theeasiest way to the top
[05:24.24]because the summit wasthe prize they sought,
[05:27.53]especially if it hadnever been attainedbefore.
[05:31.23]It is true that duringtheir explorations
[05:34.96]they often faceddifficulties anddangers of the mostperilous nature,
[05:40.04]equipped in a mannerwhich would make amodern climber shudderat the thought,
[05:45.29]but they did not goout of their way tocourt such excitement.
[05:49.75]They had a single aim,a solitary goal--thetop!
[05:55.84]It is hard for us torealize nowadays howdifficult it was forthe pioneers.
[06:01.80]Except for one or twoplaces such as Zermattand Chamonix,which hadrapidly become popular
[06:09.91]Alpine villages tendedto be impoverishedsettlements cut offfrom civilization
[06:15.47]by the high mountains.
[06:17.41]Such inns as therewere were generallydirty and flea-ridden;
[06:22.38]the food simply localcheese accompanied bybread often twelvemonths old,
[06:28.33]all washed down withcoarse wine.
[06:31.80]Often a valley boastedno inn at all,andclimbers found shelterwherever they could--
[06:38.08]sometimes with thelocal priest(who wasusually as poor as hisparishioners),
[06:44.18]sometimes withshepherds orcheese-makers.
[06:47.79]Invariably thebackground was thesame:dirt and poverty,and very uncomfortable
[06:55.43]For men accustomed toeating seven-coursedinners
[06:58.93]and sleeping betweenfine linen sheets athome,
[07:02.07]the change to the Alpsmust have been veryhard indeed.
[07:08.73]Lesson 4   Seeing hands
[07:11.24] 能看见东西的手
[07:13.75]First listen and thenanswer the followingquestion.
[07:18.95]How did Vera disovershe had this gift ofsecond sight?
[07:25.56]Several cases havebeen reported inRussia recently
[07:30.73]of people who can readand detect colourswith their fingers,
[07:34.95]and even see throughsolid doors and walls.
[07:38.47]One case concerns an11-year-old schoolgirlVera Petrova,who hasnormal vision
[07:46.58]but who can alsoperceive things withdifferent parts of herskin,
[07:50.66]and through solidwalls.
[07:53.19]This ability was firstnoticed by her father.
[07:57.45]One day she came intohis office
[08:00.69]and happened to puther hands on the doorof a locked safe.
[08:04.39]Suddenly she asked herfather why he kept somany old newspaperslocked away there,
[08:10.61]and even described theway they were done upin bundles.
[08:14.99]Vera's curious talentwas brought to thenotice of a scientificresearch institute
[08:21.18]in the town ofUlyanovsk,near whereshe lives,
[08:24.83]and in April she wasgiven a series oftests
[08:28.21]by a special commissi-on of the Ministry ofHealth of the RussianFederal Republic.
[08:33.69]During these tests shewas able to read anewspaper through anopaque screen and,
[08:40.10]stranger still,bymoving her elbow overa child's game ofLotto
[08:45.55]she was able todescribe the figuresand colours printed onit;
[08:50.01]and,in anotherinstance,wearingstockings andslippers,
[08:54.56]to make out with herfoot the outlines andcolours of a picturehidden under a carpet.
[09:01.35]Other experimentsshowed that her kneesand shoulders had asimilar sensitivity.
[09:07.35]During all these testsVera was blindfold;and indeed,
[09:13.15]except when blindfoldshe lacked the abilityto perceive thingswith her skin.
[09:18.42]It was also found thatalthough she couldperceive things withher fingers
[09:23.59]this ability ceasedthe moment her handswere wet.
[09:30.84]Lesson 5     Youth
[09:35.25]First listen and thenanswer the followingquestion.
[09:39.65]How does the writerlike to treat youngpeople?
[09:45.23]People are alwaystalking about 'theproblem of youth'.
[09:50.34]If there is one--whichI take leave to doubt
[09:53.95]--then it is olderpeople who create it,not the youngthemselves.
[09:58.97]Let us get down tofundamentals and agreethat the young areafter all human beings